Is there a governance of innovation systems in North Africa and

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Introduction

It is difficult to speak of innovation policy in the countries of the
Mediterranean partners in the European Union, the fact that most
of them have realized the importance of innovation as very
recently. If there is a policy research if the research was from
independence, the subject of some attention as an instrument
development policies, it was often in the policy framework
States and their government. Innovation policies
as such are born from the 1980s when liberalization
exchange one instead of "competitiveness" of companies and economies
to the political agenda 2. Moreover, it is difficult to speak
"system of innovation" in most of these countries, not only
Because of the relatively small size of the economies, but also because
relationships between entities supposed compose an innovation system
here are loosely connected and not systemic. Even the notion of
"Research system" seems poorly reflect, in our view, the current situation
research or policies that refer to, because research is not
fully recognized as legitimate social and economic activity, either by the state or by the company 3, despite rhetoric that it is very favorable.
However, we believe that several components of this system
innovation - we prefer to call "world of innovation" -
into place, with more or less ease, and several players
have an interest in these new institutions and their function in
relationship. This raises a question of governance that goes beyond the
implementation of state policies, in this world, a "system"
become, we propose to explore in this article 4.

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